The Handbook of Biodegradable Polymers provides a source manual for the synthetic procedures, properties, and applications of bioerodible polymers. Descriptions of widely available materials such as polylactides, collagen, and gelatin are included, as well as polymers of emerging importance such as the genetically engineered and elastin based polymers which are as yet either proprietary and/or in early stages of development.Download Now..

Natural selection created optimal catalysts. However, optimal performance of enzyme catalysis does not necessarily refer to maximum reaction rate. Rather, it may be a compromise between specificity, rate, stability, and other chemical constraints that makes enzymes capable of catalyzing reactions under mild conditions and with high substrate specificity, accompanied by high regio- and enantioselectivity. The book presented here focuses on the directed evolution of proteins, which has established itself as a powerful method for designing enzymes showing new substrate specificities. It includes a comprehensive repertoire of techniques for producing combinatorial enzyme libraries, while the functional gene expression in a suitable host helps in selecting the appropriate structure, making fast screening a necessity. This book illustrates both the theoretical background as well as the potential of this interesting method in practice - which is becoming ever more important even in classical organic synthesis!Download Now..

Though comprehensive diagnosis and treatment planning set the stage for effective orthodontic treatment, it is a clear understanding of the fundamental biomechanical principles behind orthodontic force that allows the clinician to design the most favorable appliances and systems. Correct application of the principles of biomechanics leads to highly efficient and successful orthodontic treatment a lack of proper understanding produces ineffectual systems that may even lead to collateral tissue damage. In addition, knowledge about the properties of the latest wire, bracket, and bonding materials and designs is a key factor in the configuration of successful orthodontic appliances. This essential book introduces students of orthodontics to the evolution of orthodontic technology and the properties of orthodontic materials, and outlines the essential mechanical principles behind successful orthodontic treatment.Download Now..

Recent Advances in Biopolymers

Posted on, 28th March, 2016 by admin

This volume is dedicated to advancement and engineering in biopolymers The book divided into three Sections. Section A covers synthesis of biopolymers. Lignocellulosic feedstock contains cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which are used for synthesis of biopolymers. Polymer-coated noble metal nanoparticles are used in nanobiomedicine and fundamental biomaterials. Section B describes applications of biopolymers in biomedical, antimicrobial, industrial, nanotechnology, laser-based thin films, and regenerative medicines. Section C is dedicated for advancement and engineering in biopolymers for personal protective garments, equipments, membrane separation processes, purifications, and new generation of high-performance biomaterials. A new numerical-cum-graphical method called TI2BioP (Topological Indices to BioPolymers) has been developed to estimate topological indices (TIs) from two-dimensional (2D) graphical approaches for the natural biopolymers DNA, RNA, and proteins. Contents Preface 1 Biopolymers from Waste Biomass — Extraction, Modification and Ulterior Uses 2 Biopolymer-mediated Green Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanostructures 3 Biopolymers – Application in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 4 Biopolymer Thin Films Synthesized by Advanced Pulsed Laser Techniques 5 Hydrogels for Regenerative Medicine 6 Nano-biomaterials in Antimicrobial Therapy 7 Spectroscopic Characterization of Multilayered Functional Protective Polymers via Surface Modification with Organic Polymers against Highly Toxic Chemicals 8 A Novel Application of Oceanic Biopolymers — Strategic Regulation of Polymer Characteristics for Membrane Technology in Separation Engineering 9 Bio-Interfaces Engineering Using Laser-Based Methods for Controlled Regulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Response In Vitro 10 TI2BioP — Topological Indices to BioPolymers. A Graphical– Numerical Approach for Bioinformatics Download Now..

Due to the potential benefits of biotechnology, interest in the interaction between DNA and surfactants and polymers has become increasingly significant. Now, "DNA Interactions with Polymers and Surfactants" provides an extensive, up-to-date overview of the subject, giving readers a basis for understanding the factors leading to complexation between DNA and different cosolutes, including metal ions, polyelectrolytes, spermine, spermidine, surfactants and lipids, and proteins. Download Now..

Abiotic Stress Response in Plants

Posted on, 28th March, 2016 by admin

Publisher: Intech (2014) Language: English ISBN-10: 9533076720 ISBN-13: 978-9533076720 Download Now..

Edited by two very well-known and respected scientists in the field, this excellent practical guide is the first to cover the fundamentals and a wide range of applications, as well as showing readers how to efficiently use this increasingly important technique. From the contents: * The Isotopic Composition of the Elements * Single-Collector ICP-MS * Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Advances in Laser Ablation - Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Correction for Instrumental Mass Discrimination in Isotope Ratio Determination with Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Reference Materials in Isotopic Analysis * Quality Control in Isotope Ratio Applications * Determination of Trace Elements and Elemental Species Using Isotope Dilution ICP-MS * Geochronological Dating * Application of Multi-Collector ICP-MS to Isotopic Analysis in Cosmochemistry * Establishing the Basis for Using Stable Isotope Ratios of Metals as Paleoredox Proxies * Isotopes as Tracers of Elements Across the Geosphere-Biosphere Interface * Archaeometric Applications * Forensics Applications * Nuclear Applications * The Use of Stable Isotope Techniques for Studying Mineral and Trace Element Metabolism in Humans * Isotopic Analysis via Multi-Collector ICP-MS in Elemental Speciation A must-have for newcomers as well as established scientists seeking an overview of isotopic analysis via ICP-MS. Download Now..

Here is a practical guide that not only presents insights into the organization and management of the disciplines involved in chemical process development but also provides basic knowledge of these disciplines, enabling process development practitioners to recognize and assimilate them in their work. This book illustrates practical considerations through many examples of the successful direction and integration of the activities of chemists, analysts, chemical engineers, and biologists, as well as safety, regulatory, and environmental professionals in productive teams. Moreover, this reference provides guidance on: Directing and carrying out specific tasks and courses of action Making and communicating clear and achievable decisions Solving problems on the spot Managing the administrative aspects of chemical process development The author, Dr. Derek Walker, has directed chemical process development work for four decades, combining firsthand chemical synthesis experience with many other disciplines needed to create chemical processes. You will benefit from his advice and unique insights into: Understanding the workings of matrix organizations Defining missions and creating action plans Developing interdisciplinary approaches to problem solving Holding review meetings, revising goals, and motivating staff Prioritizing programs and responses to emergencies In addition, you'll learn how successful chemists, in collaboration with other disciplines, define the best (green) chemistry for process scale-up, including accommodating FDA requirements in the last process steps and addressing safety and environmental matters early in their work. Case studies provide incisive perspective on these issues. A chapter on recognizing and patenting intellectual property emphasizes the importance of comprehensive literature surveys and understanding invention. A chapter on the future challenges you to think beyond narrow constraints and explore new horizons. Download Now..

In diesem Buch werden die Rahmenbedingungen und Zusammenhange der Entwicklung, Konformitatsbewertung und Uberprufung von Medizingeraten vermittelt. Es beschreibt, welche Hurden und Fallstricke ein Hersteller zu uberwinden hat und welche Gestaltungsmoglichkeiten gegeben sind, um Medizingerate auf den Europaischen Markt bringen zu konnen. Der Autor erlautert, welche Faktoren die Risikowahrnehmung bestimmen und welche Schutzziele einzuhalten sind, und er beschreibt, wie der Risikomanagementprozess mit Risikoanalyse, -bewertung, -beherrschung und -kontrolle umzusetzen ist, um die Sicherheit und Konformitat von Medizingraten zu gewahrleisten. Das Buch liegt nun in der 2. aktualisierten Auflage vor. Aspekte der medizinischen Software und des Qualitatsmanagements wurden starker berucksichtigt und das neue Medizinprodukterecht mit Konformitatsbewertung und Marktzulassungserfordernissen behandelt. Download Now..

This book is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary resource for the latest information on implantable medical devices, and is intended for graduate students studying electrical engineering, electronic instrumentation, and biomedical engineering. It is also appropriate for academic researchers, professional engineers, practicing doctors, and paramedical staff. Divided into two sections on Basic Concepts and Principles, and Applications, the first section provides an all-embracing perspective of the electronics background necessary for this work. The second section deals with pacing techniques used for the heart, brain, spinal cord, and the network of nerves that interlink the brain and spinal cord with the major organs, including ear and eye prostheses. The four main offshoots of implantable electronics, which this book discusses, are:* The insertion of an implantable neural amplifier for accurate recording of neural signals for neuroengineering studies * The use of implantable pulse generators for pacing the activities of diseased organs* The use of implantable sensors for observing the influence of therapy and monitoring a patient's biological parameters* The use of drug delivery systems to supervise the supply of accurate doses of medicine to affected parts Readers will also find chapters on the essentials of clocking and timing circuits, pulse generator circuits, neural amplifiers, batteries, biomaterials and biocompatibility, and more. Unique to this book is also a chapter on cyber security and confidentiality concerns with implants. End-of-chapter questions and exercises help readers apply the content to practical use, making this an ideal book for anyone wishing to learn more about implantable devices.Download Now..

Scientists can use molecular profiling microarrays to compare healthy cells with their diseased counterparts and develop gene-specific treatments. Finding the best way to interpret original profiling data into accurate trends, however, continues to drive the development of normalization algorithms and software tools. Methods in Microarray Normalization compiles the most useful and novel techniques for the first time into a single, organized source. Experts in the field provide a diverse view of the mathematical processes that are important in normalizing data and avoiding inherent systematic biases. They also review useful software, including discussions on key algorithms, comparative data, and download locations. The book discusses the use of early normalization techniques for new profiling methods and includes strategies for assessing the utility of various normalization algorithms. It presents the latest microarray innovations from companies such as Agilent, Affymetrix, and GeneGo as well as new normalization methods for protein and CGH arrays, many of which are applicable for antibody, microRNA, methylation, and siRNA arrays. Methods in Microarray Normalization provides scientists with a complete resource on the most effective tools available for maximizing microarray data in biochemical research. Daniel E. Levy, editor of the Drug Discovery Series, is the founder of DEL BioPharma, a consulting service for drug discovery programs. He also maintains a blog that explores organic chemistry. Download Now..

Up to the last decade or so, most general modeling approaches to the study of molecular components of biological responses have required significant amount of computer time, expertise, and resources, as well as highly specialized and often custom-written programs. With Biomedical Applications of Computer Modeling you don't have to be a computer scientist to learn valuable modeling techniques. The book represents the first single-volume book that describes general approaches to computer modeling as they apply to the biomedical professions, particularly in the realms of pharmacology and biochemistry. Bringing together contributions from researchers with hands-on expertise, the book is loaded with examples, and it also encompasses different types of computer modeling approaches. In fact, the text supports each modeling approach with clinical examples. It thereby provides a convenient source of readily applicable modeling information. In addition, the book offers easy-to-follow information and presents it in a how-to manner that minimizes the use of mathematical jargon. Biomedical Applications of Computer Modeling includes chapters on equilibrium modeling, dynamic/kinetic modeling, and stochastic modeling, as well as overviews of the application of models to experimental data. With the ubiquitous presence of desktops and notebook computers in biomedical environments, Biomedical Applications of Computer Modeling provides you with an unprecedented means for readily addressing data analysis or computer modeling problems.Download Now..

Praise for Hemo-Dynamics: "This book provides an elegant and intuitive derivation of the fundamental mathematics underlying fluid flow, and then applies these in a straightforward way to pulsatile blood flow in all its complexity. One of the triumphs of the book is that Zamir succeeds in making essential concepts such as the Navier-Stokes equations completely accessible to any reader with a knowledge of basic calculus. The author succeeds in conveying both the beauty of his subject matter, and his passion for the elegance and intricacies of fluid flow more generally." Lindi Wahl, PhD, Professor of Applied Mathematics, The University of Western Ontario "Incredible, the figures alone are to die for…At first glance "Hemo-Dynamics" seems like a deep engineering and modeling dive into the mechanical properties of the cardiovascular system, blood, and how they interact to generate flow and pressure. However, the text is laid out in a stepwise manner and I was especially impressed in the way that the key conceptual figures illustrate the essential concepts. In keeping with the philosophical underpinnings of engineering, Professor Zamir has also constructed his book so that the format, text, equations and the figures are self-reinforcing. This isa book that will be of great use to those who seek to understand the cardiovascular system from a mechanical and m odeling perspective." Michael J. Joyner, MD, Professor of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Download Now..

This book covers the development of biotechnology based on carbon nanostructures, with a focus on nanotubes, addressing also fullerenes and amorphous carbons. The book is divided into 7 chapters, addressing tissue engineering, genetic engineering and therapy, as well as the environmental and health impacts of carbon nanostructures. Download Now..

Phosphatases, such as TNAP are fundamental in regulating the roles of cellular, and consequently numerous body functions. TNAP is a ubiquitous enzyme with a wide spectrum of substrates and specificity. Regulation at the cellular level and the lack of TNAP activity is a lethal condition. Recent findings of a highly specific regional, laminar and subcellular localization of TNAP in the cerebral cortex indicates that in addition to its metabolic and skeletal functions, TNAP also plays a role in regulating cerebral functions, most probably cognition. In fact, TNAP disturbance could result in complex diseases such as epilepsy, developmental retardation and Alzheimer's disease. Available data suggest that, regarding brain functions, TNAP is a potentially important target of clinical research. This book aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of the functions of TNAP in the brain and on other tissues and organs.Download Now..